Виды отопления

  • Печное (печи, камины, дровяные, угольные)
  • Электрическое (электрические конвекторы)
  • Водяное отопление, о нем подробнее.

Что такое водяная система отопления – это отопительные приборы (радиаторы) и теплогенератор (котел, газовый, электрический, твердотопливный, жидкотопливный). Эти компоненты соединены трубопроводами (медными, стальными, полимерными) и заполнены теплоносителем (вода, антифриз), который циркулирует с помощью насосов (принудительная циркуляция) или самотеком (естественная циркуляция,  устаревшая).

Остановимся на современной системе отопления с принудительной циркуляцией, данная система является закрытой (герметичной), т.к. имеет расширительный бак мембранного типа, бак служит для компенсации температурного расширения теплоносителя (при нагреве вода расширяется). Также в  систему входят регулирующая арматура, распределительные коллекторы и прочее.

Основные преимущества системы отопления с принудительной циркуляцией:

  • малые диаметры труб (удобство скрытого монтажа и прочее)
  • комфорт (независимое  регулирование температуры во всех помещениях)
  • большой срок службы (по сравнению с системами из стали)
  • экономичность (по сравнению с устаревшими системами отопления)


  • энергозависимость  (в наше время легко решаемо – установка электрического генератора, ИБП).

Системы отопления по способу циркуляции теплоносителя бывают:

С естественной циркуляцией (гравитационные/открытые) – устаревшие.

С принудительной циркуляцией (насосные/закрытые) – современные

Последнюю рассмотрим подробнее.

По способу разводки бывают:



коллекторные (лучевая)

В жилых домах наиболее часто применяются последние две.  Двухтрубная разводка более дешевая и простая в монтаже.

Коллекторная (лучевая) дороже и сложнее в монтаже, но при этом более сбалансирована гидравлически и надежнее из-за отсутствия соединений конструкции пола (от коллекторного шкафа к радиатору подходит цельная труба, а в двухтрубной системе к каждому радиатору от основной трубы идут подводки и соединяются при помощи пресс-фитингов.


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